Biochemists from Russia and South buy linkedin connections Africa studied the composition and residences of fermented drinks popular of their nations
Feb 21, 2022
FEDERAL RESEARCH CENTRE “FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY” OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE
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For more than six thousand years, mankind has been using fermentation to prepare food and drinks, and still fermented dairy products and different fermented ingredients are broadly consumed for his or her high nutritional value, attractive sensory attributes and capability fitness-selling homes. Some of those products (along with yogurt) are produced and sold around the world, at the same time as others are little acknowledged outside of one or some countries.
Biochemists from the Institute of the Research Center of Biotechnology RAS (Russia) and Durban University of Technology (South Africa) studied the composition and residences of fermented beverages popular in their countries. The research covered 3 milk-primarily based products—kefir and ryazhenka from Russia, and amasi (also known as maas) from South Africa, as well as one corn-based South African product—mahewu (additionally called amahewu, mageu).
“Usually, meals is taken into consideration most effective as a supply for sustenance. However, more and more humans start to agree with that it additionally need to maintain and improve health. Modern strategies of biochemistry, biotechnology, remedy, and pharmacology permit mankind to look in another way on the usefulness of traditional, centuries-old meals. Our research makes a speciality of fermented merchandise, which normal intake can potentially prevent atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, and thrombosis,” says Konstantin Moiseenko, co-author of the take a look at.
Kefir is made from milk the use of a special starter tradition, kefir grains, which includes a massive wide variety of various microorganisms, such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc micro organism, acetic acid micro organism, and yeasts. Kefir is local to the Caucasus location, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, it spread to different areas and have become one of the most popular bitter-milk beverages in Russia.
Ryazhenka is also an extremely popular product in the Russian marketplace. This drink is crafted from baked milk the usage of conventional yogurt starter that consists of the micro organism Lactobacillus bulgaricus (Bulgarian bacillus) and Streptococcus thermophilus.
Amasi is produced in South Africa from cow’s milk the usage of bacterial cultures of Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Cremoris, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. Cremoris. The traditional manner of creating amasi entails fermentation in a calabash or in a gourd. Another standard South African fermented tender drink, mahewu, is crafted from cornmeal, which starts offevolved to ferment when wheat flour or lactobacillus starter is delivered.
The experiments and their consequences
Scientists analyzed the content material of antioxidants and fatty acids (for fermented dairy products) inside the beverages, in addition to the risky organic compounds that decide their taste and scent. In addition, biochemists tested which of the products can inhibit the angiotensin-changing enzyme chargeable for growth of blood pressure.
Milk-primarily based products were observed to have greater antioxidants, but mahewu become higher at suppressing the angiotensin-converting enzyme. The composition of fatty acids in kefir and ryazhenka become extra various than in amasi, and from the point of view of a healthful weight-reduction plan (prevention of atherosclerosis and thrombosis), kefir and ryazhenka are most appropriate. However, more branched chain fatty acids have been discovered in amasi; those fatty acids have these days been considered as crucial bioactive molecules which might be beneficial for human health. In particular, some research showed that branched chain fatty acids have anti-tumor interest.
Kefir and ryazhenka have a more awesome and highly spiced flavor in comparison to amasi, which feels creamier. Mahewu has pretty plain taste but acquires extra fruity notes whilst stored. Acidic additives in these types of liquids were identical – about a third of all unstable compounds. Kefir changed into found to have the best alcohol content (67% of all volatile compounds), even as ryazhenka and amasi had only 3 percentage every. Scientists discovered ketones most effective in ryazhenka (sixty two%) and kefir (1%), and esters in mahewu (50%) and ryazhenka (6%). This explains the fruity flavor of the primary products and the unusual taste of the third. Aromatic alcohol (furfural), formed because of the Maillard response, become also found inside the ryazhenka, which offers the drink a burnt caramel taste. In addition, acetoin became located in amasi (which makes it creamy), and lactamide changed into determined in mahewu (the supply of which seems to be wheat flour introduced all through fermentation).
“Results of our studies will assist to replace and enlarge contemporary nutritional recommendation for healthy ingesting. Studying the materials which can be answerable for the traditional flavor of those foods can assist find higher mixtures for brand spanking new recipes. There is a speculation that foods that percentage volatile natural compounds are more likely to taste better collectively,” explained scientists.